No True Scotsman:
Person A: “No Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge.”
Person B: “But my uncle Angus likes sugar with his porridge.”
Person A: “Ah yes, but no true Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge.”
Reasoning that, in a situation that is pure random chance, the outcome can be affected by previous outcomes.
Example: “I have flipped heads five times in a row. As a result, the next flip will probably be tails.”
Bandwagon is a fallacy based on the assumption that the opinion of the majority is always valid.
Example: “Marcus wants to go to a small community college close to home, but most of the kids in his class are applying to larger colleges out of state. Marcus decides that he should also apply to those colleges.”
When a relatively insignificant first event is suggested to lead to a more significant event, which in turn leads to a more significant event, and so on, until some ultimate, significant event is reached, where the connection of each event is not only unwarranted but with each step it becomes more and more improbable.
Example: We cannot unlock our child from the closet because if we do, she will want to roam the house. If we let her roam the house, she will want to roam the neighborhood. If she roams the neighborhood, she will get picked up by a stranger in a van, who will sell her in a sex slavery ring in some other country. Therefore, we should keep her locked up in the closet.
Argue an extreme position
People that are enrolled for an unemployment benefit from the government are just being lazy and pathetic as they are not working to get their money. Everybody else works for their money, therefore, they should too. If we keep letting these people get this benefit then everyone will want to stop working, and nobody will work anymore.